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First Aid: A Helpful Reference for Anyone

These pages hold instructions on how to do some common first aid procedures as well as others that may include long-term care.

NOTE - This page is meant to be a reference during role-play. It is not meant to diagnose, prevent, treat, or cure any real medical condition. Any risk or liability is your own.

Bandages and Dressings | Burns and Scalds | Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation | Controlling Bleeding | Delivering a Baby | Miscellaneous Procedures | Shock | Sprains, Strains, and Fractures | Treating Wounds


Controlling Bleeding

Hemorrhaging or Bleeding | "Bleeders" | Methods of Controlling Bleeding | Minor Bleeding | Heavy Bleeding | Internal Bleeding | Nosebleeds

Hemorrhaging or Bleeding

Hemorrhaging or bleeding is the escape of blood from an artery, vein, or capillary.

Bleeding from an Artery
Arterial bleeding is characterized by bright red blood that spurts from the wound. The blood in the arteries is pumped directly from the heart and spurts at each contraction. Having recieved a fresh supply of oxygen, the blood is bright red.

Bleeding from a Vein
When dark red blood flows from a wound in a steady stream, a vein has been cut. The blood, having given up its oxygen and recieved carbon dioxide and waste products in return, is dark red.

Bleeding from Capillaries
Blood from cut capillaries oozes. There is usually no cause for alarm as relatively little blood is lost. Usually direct pressure with a compress applied over the wound will cause the formation of a clot. When large skin surface is involved, the threat of infection may be more serious than the loss of blood.


There are some conditions, such as hemophilia, or those caused by a side effect of medication, etc., that do not allow normal clotting to occur. Some persons may be in danger of bleeding to death even from the slightest wounds. This free bleeding may be internal as well as external, a condition that warrants close observation for shock. In addition to applying compress bandages or gauze, rush the person to the nearest place where medical treatment can be quickly administered.

Methods of Controlling Bleeding

Most bleeding can be easily controlled. External bleeding can usually be suppressed by applying direct pressure to the open wound. Direct pressure permits normal clotting to occur.
In the case of severe bleeding, the first aider may be upset by the appearance of the wound and the emotional state of the victim. Remember that a small amount of blood emerging from a wound spreads and appears as a lot of blood. It is important for the first aider to keep calm, keep the victim calm and do what is necessary to relieve the situation.
When it is necessary to control bleeding, use the following methods:

Minor Bleeding


Major Bleeding


Internal Bleeding

Internal bleeding in the chest or abdominal cavities usually results from a hard blow or certain fractures. Internal bleeding is not usually visible, but it can be very serious, even fatal. Internal bleeding may be determined by any or all of the following signs and symptoms: Emergency care for internal bleeding requires securing and maintaining an open airway, and treating for shock. Never give the victim anything by mouth. Transport anyone suspected of having any internal bleeding to professional medical help as quickly and safely as possible. Keep an injured person on his or her side when blood or vomit is coming from the mouth. Place the victim with chest injuries on the injured side if no spinal injuries are suspected. Transport the victim gently.


Nosebleeds are caused by traumas that break the fragile blood vessels of the nose. This could be from cold air, dry air, foreign object obstructing the nose, nose picking, colds, sinus trouble, high blood pressure, or could occur from a strike to the nose in a fight. Sometimes, nosebleeding is an indication of a tumor in the sinuses or the nose.
First aid for nosebleeds is simple: Anyone suffering a nosebleed after injury should be examined for possible facial fractures. If a fractured skull is suspected as the cause of a nosebleed, do not attempt to stop the bleeding. To do so might increase the pressure on the brain. Treat the victim for a fractured skull.


For more detail relating to the healing of humans, here is a neat site that might help you. The golden fire lizard will show you the way!

Sources for these pages were:

Radcliffe, J. The New International Webster's Pocket Medical & First Aid Dictionary of the English Language. USA: Trident Press International, 1997.

Yahoo! Yahoo! Health Encyclopedia. June 2004.

All references to worlds and characters based on Anne McCaffrey's fiction are copyright
Anne McCaffrey 1967, 2001, all rights reserved, and used by permission of the author.

Special thanks to Nerissa and Avonelle, who helped in the compilation of this resource.