CPR for Single Rescuer
The CPR procedures should be learned and practiced on a training mannequin under the guidance of a qualified instructor. The step by step procedure for cardiopulmonary resuscitation is as follows:
Sometimes opening and maintaining an open airway is all that is necessary to restore breathing.
- Establish unresponsiveness. Gently shake the victim's shoulder and shout, "Are you okay?" The individual's response or lack of response will indicate to the rescuer if the victim is just sleeping or unconscious.
- Call for help. Help will be needed to assist in performing CPR or to call for a healer.
- Position the victim. If the victim is found in a crumpled up position and/or face down, the rescuer must roll the victim over; this is done while calling for help.
- When rolling the victim over, take care that broken bones are not further complicated by improper handling. Roll the victim as a unit so that the head, shoulders, and torso move simultaneously with no twisting.
- Kneel beside the victim, a few inches to the side.
- The arm nearest the rescuer should be raised above the victim's head.
- The rescuer's hand closest to the victim's head should be placed on the victim's head and neck to prevent them from twisting.
- The rescuer should use the other hand to grasp under the victim's arm furthest from rescuer. This will be the point at which the rescuer exerts the pull in rolling the body over.
- Pull carefully under the arm, and the hips and torso will follow the shoulders with minimal twisting.
- Be sure to watch the neck and keep it in line with the rest of the body.
- The victim should now be flat on his or her back.
- A-Airway. Open the airway. The most common cause of airway obstruction in an unconscious victim is the tongue.
- Use the head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver to open airway. (This maneuver is not recommended for a victim with possible neck or spinal injuries.)
- B-Breathing. Establish breathlessness. After opening the airway, establish breathlessness.
- Turn your head toward the victim's feet with your cheek close over the victim's mouth (3 to 5 seconds).
- Look for a rise and fall in the victim's chest.
- Listen for air exchange at the mouth and nose.
- Feel for the flow of air.
- Provide artificial ventilation.
- If the victim is not breathing give two full breaths by mouth-to-mouth, mouth-to-nose, or mouth-to-stoma ventilation.
- Allow for lung deflation between each of the two ventilations.
- C-Circulation. Check for pulse. Check the victim's pulse to determine whether external cardiac compressions are necessary.
- Maintain an open airway position by holding the forehead of the victim.
- Place your fingertips on the victim's windpipe and then slide them toward you until you reach the groove of the neck. Press gently on this area (carotid artery).
- Check the victim's pulse for at least five seconds but no more than ten.
- If a pulse is present, continue administering artificial ventilation once every five seconds or twelve times a minute. If not, make arrangements to send for trained medical assistance and begin CPR.
- Perform cardiac compressions.
- Place the victim in a horizontal position on a hard, flat surface.
- Locate the bottom of the rib cage with the index and middle fingers of your hand closest to patient's feet.
- Run your index finger up to or in the notch where the ribs meet the sternum or breastbone.
- Place your middle finger in notch and index finger on sternum.
- Place the heel of the other hand on the sternum next to the index finger in the notch of the rib cage.
- Place the hand used to locate the notch at the rib cage on top and parallel to the hand which is on the sternum.
- Keep the fingers off the chest by either extending or interlocking them.
- Keep the elbows in a straight and locked position.
- Position your shoulders directly over the hands so that pressure is exerted straight downward.
- Exert enough downward pressure to depress the sternum of an adult one and one-half (11/2) to two (2) inches.
- Each firm compression should squeeze the heart between the sternum and spine to pump blood through the body.
- Totally release the pressure in order to allow the heart to refill completely with blood.
- Keep the heel of your hand in contact with the victim's chest at all times.
- Make compressions down and up in a smooth manner.
- Perform fifteen cardiac compressions at a rate of eighty to one hundred per minute, counting "one and, two and, three and," ... to fifteen.
- Use the head-tilt/chin-lift maneuver and give two full breaths (artificial ventilation).
- Repeat cycle (fifteen comressions and two ventilations) four times.
- After the fourth cycle, recheck the carotid pulse in the neck for a heartbeat (five to ten seconds).
- If breathing and heartbeat are absent, resume CPR (fifteen compressions and two ventilations).
- Stop and check heartbeat every few minutes thereafter.
- Never interrupt CPR for more than five seconds except to check the carotid pulse or to move the victim.
For more detail relating to the healing of humans, here is a neat site that might help you. The golden fire lizard will show you the way!
Sources for these pages were:
|Radcliffe, J. The New International Webster's Pocket Medical & First Aid Dictionary of the English Language. USA: Trident Press International, 1997.|
Yahoo! Yahoo! Health Encyclopedia. June 2004.
All references to worlds and characters based on Anne McCaffrey's fiction are copyright ©
Anne McCaffrey 1967, 2001, all rights reserved, and used by permission of the author.
Special thanks to Nerissa and Avonelle, who helped in the compilation of this resource.